Reference Number: 451
Health: Cardiometabolic diseases
In the present study, we examined whether particular urinary oxylipins (isoprostanes (IsoPs), leukotrienes (LTs), prostaglandins (PGs), and thromboxanes (TXs)) in 16 elite triathletes could alter during 145 days of training. Within this time span, 45 days were dedicated to examining the effects of the intake of a beverage rich in polyphenols (one serving: 200 mL per day) supplemented in their diet. The beverage was a mixture of citrus juice (95%) and Aronia melanocarpa juice (5%) (ACJ). Fifty-two oxylipins were analyzed in the urine. The quantification was carried out using solid-phase extraction, liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. The physical activity decreased the excretion of some PG, IsoP, TX, and LT metabolites from arachidonic acid, ?-dihomo-linolenic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid. The ACJ also reduced the excretion of 2,3-dinor-11?-PGF2? and 11-dehydro-TXB2, although the levels of other metabolites increased after juice supplementation (PGE2, 15-keto-15-F2t-IsoP, 20-OH-PGE2, LTE4, and 15-epi-15-E2t-IsoP), compared to the placebo. The metabolites that increased in abundance have been related to vascular homeostasis and smooth muscle function, suggesting a positive effect on the cardiovascular system. In conclusion, exercise influences mainly the decrease in oxidative stress and the inflammation status in elite triathletes, while ACJ supplementation has a potential benefit regarding the cardiovascular system that is connected in a synergistic manner with elite physical activity.
Significance of this study to the baker:
Aronia (Aronia melanocarpa) aka the chokeberry, is another fruit also commonly found in swamps and here at the Sourdough School, it is used as an ingredient within our botanical blends.
Aronia is native to eastern North America and is from a family of deciduous shrubs. Aronia berries are small and dark blue/black in colour and as a result, provide another rich source of anthocyanins. On top of their source of these polyphenols, they are also high in fibre, vitamins and minerals. Traditionally in North America they have been used as a cold remedy and are usually used to make juices, purees, jams and jellies. Being very astringent, they tend not to be eaten as a whole berry due to leaving a dry, sandpaper feel in your mouth. They are available now fresh, frozen, dried and in a powder form. Studies in athletes, find consumption of Aronia juice lowered markers of inflammation, modulated effects of vascular smooth muscle supporting the cardiovascular system. It was thought these effects derived from the phytochemical content of the Aronia berry.