Reference Number: 489
In the present study, biochars (BCs) derived from naturally grown green waste (Cynodon dactylon L.) were investigated regarding their impacts on bioaccumulation of potentially toxic elements (PTEs), agronomic properties and human health risks of wheat crop cultivated on long-term industrially contaminated soil. Typically, three types of BCs were pyrolyzed at different highest temperature of treatment (HTT), i.e. 400 °C, 600 °C and 800 °C, in a horizontal reactor and applied to the contaminated soil with 2% and 5% (w/w) ratio. The characterization results of the BCs showed that significant positive changes in fundamental characteristics such as porosity, surface area, cation exchange capacity, dissolved organic carbon, phosphorus and potassium have occurred with increased HTT. The analytical results of wheat crop indicated that the BCs applications significantly (p ? 0.05) reduced concentration of PTEs in roots (48-95%), shoots (38-91%), leaves (30-91%) and grains (38-93%) of wheat plants. After the BCs application, the agronomic properties were enhanced up to 6-18%, 18-38%, 17-46%, 13-45%, 15-42%, 22-55% and 34-57% for germination rate, shoot length, shoot biomass, spike length, spike biomass, grain biomass and root biomass respectively. The human health risks of PTEs were significantly (p ? 0.05) decreased (31-93%) from toxicity level to safe level (except for Mn and Cu), after the BCs application. Based on the current study, the BCs (especially 800BC5) were recommended for reducing bioaccumulation of PTEs in different parts of the wheat plant, increasing growth and yield of wheat crop and decreasing human health risks via consumption of wheat grains.
Significance of this study to the baker:
The reality is that our soils are becoming severely degraded and, in parts, contaminated with toxins. This stems from a result of intensive farming and monocultures (farming of one crop at the expense of others).
This is why at the Sourdough School we promote the use of organic grains and flour that is grown in more sustainable agriculture practise. Not only is this better for the environment however, it may also help reduce the risks of contamination and improve the mineral content and overall nutritional value of the grains and flour. Ultimately, this makes the consumption of Sourdough bread from organic high-quality grains more favourable for our health and reduces risk of disease.