A paper with a broad overview of cardiovascular disease. Link to the paper
Nikki SwanDiet-gut microbiota interactions on cardiovascular diseaseXufei Zhang and Philippe Gérard29 April 2022https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8983311/
CVDs are a group of disorders of the heart and blood vessels and remain the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Over the past decades, accumulating studies indicated that the gut microbiota, an indispensable “invisible organ”, plays a vital role in human metabolism and disease states including CVD. Among many endogenous and exogenous factors that can impact gut microbial communities, the dietary nutrients emerge as an essential component of host-microbiota relationships that can be involved in CVD susceptibility. In this review, they summarise the major concepts of dietary modulation of the gut microbiota and the chief principles of the involvement of this microbiota in CVD development. They also discuss the mechanisms of diet-microbiota crosstalk that regulate CVD progression, including endotoxemia, inflammation, gut barrier dysfunction and lipid metabolism dysfunction. In addition, we describe how metabolites produced by the microbiota, including trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), secondary bile acids (BAs), short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) as well as aromatic amino acids (AAAs) derived metabolites play a role in CVD pathogenesis. Finally, we present the potential dietary interventions which interacted with gut microbiota as novel preventive and therapeutic strategies for CVD management
1 How to Bake, Eat & Share Bread according to the 6 pillars of Lifestyle Medicine Principles1. Nutrition & Healthy Eating Principles -Many fruit vegImpact on Cardiovascularhttps://thesourdoughschool.com/classic-100-wholegrain/https://thesourdoughschool.com/classic-100-wholegrain/
For me the significance of a lit review at this stage is that it gives a broad overview of the topic which at the early stage of learning is rather useful. Cardio Vascular Disease (CDV) is also something very close to my heart (pun intended). For the patient the increase in fibre content needs to be a long term intervention to promoted the increase of gut microbiota richness or diversity also that there is a crucial role of gut microbiota in the regulation of blood pressure. They explore the cross over with other diseases which are associated with CVD e.g. CVD patients in heart failure or Hypertensive (HT) are often observed with dysfunctional intestinal barrier accompanied with increase of the systemic microbial component Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and inflammation; also via the host lipid metabolism which are risk factors in CVD. They suggest that the intestinal microbiota has been identified to modulate the protective association between the diet rich in fibres and CVD risk. Specifically, the functional role of dietary fibres or Short Chain Fatty Acids (SCFAs) in alleviating HT or other CVD subtypes so at its simplest we are looking at wholegrain flours for maximum fibre content but not things like Einkorn which have low fibre. a further conclusion was fermenting dietary fibres to generate SCFAs mostly exerted some beneficial effects on CVD progression. They also cover prebiotic, probiotics, fruit and veg, type of diet (mediterranean) and Chinese medicine. A key outcome for the baker is that a diversity blend would probably work well but that all aspects of nutrition (i.e. what is eaten with the bread) is important.