Reference Number: 7
Intolerance & Sensitivity: FODMAPS
Dietary intake of fermentable oligo-, di- and monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAP) has previously been shown to aggravate the symptoms of the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), furthermore being associated with wheat sensitivity and a bread wheat-specific intolerance. FODMAP in whole grain flours and breads made of different varieties of bread wheat, spelt, durum, emmer, and einkorn were determined by high-performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection. Fructans and raffinose were the only FODMAP detected in wheat flour. Total FODMAP contents ranged from 1.24 ± 0.38 to 2.01 ± 0.42g/100g DM in emmer and einkorn flours, respectively. During bread making, prolonging dough proofing times (>4 hours) allowed to effectively diminish FODMAP levels of the final product by up to 90%. Therefore, the applied processing method was substantially more important than the selection of the used variety in order to obtain low-FODMAP wheat bakery products, suitable for consumption by IBS patients.
Significance of the study to the baker
This paper reviews the benefits of long slow fermentation in alleviating the symptoms of IBS. It is said here that prolonged dough proofing times of more than 4 hours help significantly lower the levels of FODMAPS irrespective of the type of wheat variety used. This could be one of the reasons why people with IBS can tolerate and digest sourdough bread more easily than fast-fermented modern breads.
If you’d like to know more about eating bread with IBS, check out our collaborative post with Eve Kalinik where she discusses just that!