Reference Number: 82
Development of the human brain, the seat of cognition and intelligence, continues into post-natal life and even adolescence. While the framework of subcortical–cortical connectivity is established before mid-gestation and the intra-cortical circuits that integrate information across functional domains also form before birth, their growth and modi?cation extends into puberty (5). For the purpose of this review, we will focus on central nervous system development in the ?rst 3 years of life as this is the period when the gastrointestinal microbiota also develops, and it is likely that interaction occurs between the two. Due to the dynamic nature of brain development during early life, vulnerability exists that allows both genetic and environmental perturbations to in?uence adaptive changes in neuronal circuits.