Reference Number: 529
Gut microbes programme their metabolism to suit intestinal conditions and convert dietary components into a panel of small molecules that ultimately affect host physiology. To unveil what
is behind the effects of key dietary components on microbial functions and the way they modulate host–microbe interaction, we used for the first time a multi-omic approach that goes behind the mere gut phylogenetic composition and provides an overall picture of the functional repertoire in 27 faecal samples from omnivorous, vegan and vegetarian volunteers. Based on our data, vegan and vegetarian diets were associated to the highest abundance of microbial genes/proteins responsible for cell motility, carbohydrate- and protein-hydrolysing enzymes, transport systems and the synthesis of essential amino acids and vitamins. A positive correlation was observed when intake of fibre and the relative faecal abundance of flagellin were compared. Microbial cells and flagellin extracted from faecal samples of 61 healthy donors modulated the viability of the human (HT29) colon carcinoma cells and the host response through the stimulation of the expression of Toll-like receptor 5, lectin RegIII? and three interleukins (IL-8, IL-22 and IL-23). Our findings concretize a further and relevant milestone on how the diet may prevent/mitigate disease risk.
Significance of this study to the baker:
A further development into the science confirming how our diet choices influence the health of our gut microbiome, and in turn if positive changes are made, then we can support the prevention of disease risk. This study confirmed the benefits of consuming a plant based diet, richer in dietary fibres and nutrient density. These benefits gained are through the enrichment of an abundance in microbes responsible for key elements of our health such as the synthesis of essential proteins and vitamins.