Reference Number: 641
Intolerance & Sensitivity: FODMAPS
A low FODMAP (fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols) diet allows most irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients to manage their gastrointestinal symptoms by avoiding FODMAP-containing foods, such as onions, pulses, and products made from wheat or rye. The downside of a low FODMAP diet is the reduced intake of dietary fiber. Applying sourdoughs—with specific FODMAP-targeting metabolic properties—to wholegrain bread making can help to remarkably reduce the content of FODMAPs in bread without affecting the content of the slowly fermented and well-tolerated dietary fiber. In this review, we outline the metabolism of FODMAPs in conventional sourdoughs and outline concepts related to fructan and mannitol metabolism that allow development of low FODMAP sourdough bread. We also summarize clinical studies where low FODMAP but high fiber, rye sourdough bread was tested for its effects on gut fermentation and gastrointestinal symptoms with very promising results. The sourdough bread-making process offers a means to develop natural and fiber-rich low FODMAP bakery products for IBS patients and thereby help them to increase their dietary fiber intake.
Significance to the baker:
A common dietary intervention for those with IBS is a low-FODMAP diet, developed by researchers at Monash University. Whilst effective, a common drawback of the diet is that it can lead to reduced fibre intake and impact diversity levels in the gut microbiome. According to this study, sourdough fermentation can degrade certain FODMAPS in whole-grain bread, namely fructans, thereby increasing the digestibility of the end-product. Better still, it can do this without affecting the content of the slowly fermented and well-tolerated dietary fibre. As such, the paper concludes that sourdough fermentation offers a means to develop natural and fibre-rich low FODMAP bakery products for IBS patients.