Reference Number: 597
The gut microbiome plays important roles in the maintenance of host health and the pathogenesis of many diseases. Diet is a key modulator of the gut microbiome. There is increasing evidence that nutrients other than fermentable fiber affect the gut microbial composition. In this review, we discuss the effects of vitamins on the gut microbiome, and related gastrointestinal health, based on in vitro, animal and human studies. Some vitamins, when provided in large doses or when delivered to the large intestine, have been shown to beneficially modulate the gut microbiome by increasing the abundance of presumed commensals (vitamins A, B2, D, E, and beta-carotene), increasing or maintaining microbial diversity (vitamins A, B2, B3, C, K) and richness (vitamin D), increasing short chain fatty acid production (vitamin C), or increasing the abundance of short chain fatty acid producers (vitamins B2, E). Others, such as vitamins A and D, modulate the gut immune response or barrier function, thus, indirectly influencing gastrointestinal health or the microbiome. Future research is needed to explore these potential effects and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms and host health benefits.