Reference Number: 237
Inclusions: Flax seeds
Dietary fibers, an integral part of the human diet, require the enzymatic activity of the gut microbiota for complete metabolism into short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). SCFAs are important modulators of host metabolism and physiology and act in part as signaling molecules by activating G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), such as GPR41. Flaxseed fibers improve metabolism in rodents and mice, but their fermentation profiles, effects on enteroendocrine cells, and associated metabolic benefits are unknown. We fed GPR41-red fluorescent protein mice, an enteroendocrine reporter mouse strain, chow, high-fat diet (HFD), or HFD supplemented either with 10% nonfermentable fiber cellulose or fermentable flaxseed fibers for 12 wk to assess changes in cecal gut microbiota, enteroendocrine cell transcriptome in the ileum and colon, and physiological parameters. We observed that flaxseed fibers restructured the gut microbiota and promoted proliferation of the genera Bifidobacterium and Akkermansia compared with HFD. The shifts in cecal bacterial composition restored levels of the SCFAs butyrate similar to the chow diet, resulting in colonic but not ileal enteroendocrine cell transcriptional changes in genes related to cell cycle, mRNA, and protein transport compared with HFD. Consistent with the effects on enteroendocrine functions, flaxseed fibers also protected mice from diet-induced obesity, potentially by preventing a reduction in energy expenditure induced by an HFD. Our study shows that flaxseed fibers alter cecal microbial ecology, are fermented to SCFAs in the cecum, and modulate enteroendocrine cell transcriptome in the colon, which may contribute to their metabolically favorable phenotype.
What does this mean for bakers?
Flaxseeds area a valuable source of dietary fibre which are fermented by the gut bacteria to produce short chain fatty acids. So adding flaxseeds to your loaves is a great way to add fibre and getting all the associated health benefits.