Reference Number: 483
Objectives: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with adverse cardiovascular events, and impaired vascular function. In this study we evaluated the effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) supplementation on vascular function, inflammatory and fibrinolytic process in subjects with MetS.
Methods: We studied the effect of a 12 weeks oral treatment with 2 g/day of omega-3 PUFAs in 29 (15 male) subjects (mean age 44 ± 12 years) with MetS on three occasions (day0: baseline, day 28 and day 84). The study was carried out on two separate arms (PUFAs and placebo), according to a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over design. The diagnosis of MetS was based on the guidelines of Adult Treatment Panel III definition. Endothelial function was evaluated by flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) was measured as an index of aortic stiffness. Serum levels of interleukin-6(IL-6) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1(PAI-1) were measured by ELISA.
Results: Treatment with PUFAs resulted in a significant improvement from day 0 to 28 and 84 in FMD and PWV (p < 0.001 for all). Nevertheless, treatment with placebo resulted in no significant changes in FMD (p = 0.63) and PWV (p = 0.17). Moreover, PUFAs treatment, compared to placebo, decreased IL-6 levels (p = 0.03) and increased PAI-1 levels (p = 0.03). Finally, treatment with PUFAs resulted in a significant decrease in fasting triglyceride levels from day 0 to 28 and 84 (p < 0.001) and in serum total cholesterol levels (p < 0.001).
Conclusions: In subjects with MetS, treatment with omega-3 PUFAs improved endothelial function and arterial stiffness with a parallel antiinflammatory effect.
Significance of this study to the baker:
This human trial finds that consumption of omega 3, a form of polyunsaturated fat that we gain from our food. This healthy essential fatty acid can be found in oily fish (trout, salmon, sardines, tuna, anchovies), flaxseeds and chia seeds. This study finds that its consumption may improve cardiovascular function and lower inflammation. In addition we also learn that Omega 3 consumption may also benefit our gut microbiome too. Here at the sourdough school we include sources of omega 3 in our recipes, such as our Cultured Anchovy Butter.