Reference Number: 467
Common beans are a rich source of nondigestible fermentable components and phenolic compounds that have anti-inflammatory effects. We assessed the gut-health-promoting potential of kidney beans in healthy mice and their ability to attenuate colonic inflammation following dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) exposure (via drinking water, 2% DSS w/v, 7 days). C57BL/6 mice were fed one of three isocaloric diets: basal diet control (BD), or BD supplemented with 20% cooked white (WK) or dark red kidney (DK) bean flour for 3 weeks. In healthy mice, anti-inflammatory microbial-derived cecal short chain fatty acid (SCFA) levels (acetate, butyrate and propionate), colon crypt height and colonic Mucin 1 (MUC1) and Resistin-like Molecule beta (Relm?) mRNA expression all increased in WK- and DK-fed mice compared to BD, indicative of enhanced microbial activity, gut barrier integrity and antimicrobial defense response. During colitis, both bean diets reduced (a) disease severity, (b) colonic histological damage and (c) increased mRNA expression of antimicrobial and barrier integrity-promoting genes (Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4), MUC1-3, Relm? and Trefoil Factor 3 (TFF3)) and reduced proinflammatory mediator expression [interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, interferon (IFN)?, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)? and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1], which correlated with reduced colon tissue protein levels. Further, bean diets exerted a systemic anti-inflammatory effect during colitis by reducing serum levels of IL-17A, IFN?, TNF?, IL-1? and IL-6. In conclusion, both WK and DK bean-supplemented diets enhanced microbial-derived SCFA metabolite production, gut barrier integrity and the microbial defensive response in the healthy colon, which supported an anti-inflammatory phenotype during colitis. Collectively, these data demonstrate a beneficial colon-function priming effect of bean consumption that mitigates colitis severity.
Significance of this study to the baker:
The common bean has many varieties such as the Red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). We use Red Kidney beans within our botanical blends here at the Sourdough School.
Although there are no human studies to date, evidence in mice provided here, find consumption of this bean improves gut health with increased levels of short chain fatty acids, and overall anti-inflammatory effect in the gastrointestinal tract.
These beans provide a rich source of dietary starch, fibre and protein including minerals such as folate, iron and magnesium. They are historically used in Indian cuisine and also in areas of America with Caribbean heritage. The raw beans can be toxic if they are not pre-soaked and heated to boiling point for at least 10 minutes. Due to the rich red colour, they are also high in polyphenols such as anthocyanins and therefore have been linked to antioxidant activity and potential health benefits such as lowering risk for cardiovascular disease and cancer.